Convicted felons lose a variety of civil rights. For instance, felons lose the right to vote, serve on juries and run for public office. In addition, felons lose the ability to possess firearms or ammunition. As federal law makes clear, "It shall be unlawful for any person...who has been convicted in any court, of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year...to possess...any firearm or ammunition..." 18 U.S.C. Section 922(g)(1).
After a person has completed their sentence and any period of probation, parole, or supervised release, they are eligible to petition the Governor's Office to have their civil rights restored. Generally a person can have all of those rights reinstated with the exception of the ability to possess a firearm.
These significant collateral consequences associated with convictions highlight the reason experienced criminal defense attorneys negotiate aggressively for diverted pleas and sentences. These diversionary sentences generally allow a person to have all of their civil rights restored after their sentences are completed.